Dosage and Use
Delivery: India only
Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) is an anti-oxidant that assists in maintaining cell integrity. It is easily obtained from sunflower, safflower, canola, and olive oils; also from many grains, nuts, fruits as well as fatty parts of meats.
Only a small amount of vitamin E is needed to meet normal daily requirements. However, research using vitamin E at far higher doses than the daily requirement has provided preliminary evidence that it may be helpful for preventing or treating various medical conditions. These uses include treating menstrual pain, cardiac autonomic neuropathy (a complication of diabetes), low sperm count, restless leg syndrome, inflammation of eye tissues, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and rheumatoid arthritis. Vitamin E also might improve seniors’ immune response.
Vitamin E was long touted for preventing cardiovascular disease. But most of the recent studies have failed to support that premise. However, many of these studies looked only at people already at high risk for heart disease or with a prior history of the condition. Vitamin E also once was considered a promising treatment for preventing several kinds of cancer. However, current evidence points only to the prevention of prostate cancer.
HEALTH BENEFITS of VITAMIN E
- Improves sperm count, motility. (Ref: Arch. Androl. 49(2):83-94, 2003) and Morphology).
Improves oligoaesthenospermia by about 3 fold when used in combination
Antioxidant properties: “Vitamin E” has distinctive antioxidant activities. It protects body cells from the free radicals formed when fat undergoes oxidation. Free radicals also come from environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Free radicals are highly energetic and react rapidly with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS, which are commonly produced when the body converts food to energy, in turn damage cells and might contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Antioxidants like Vitamin E protect cells from the damaging effects of ROS.
Immune Function: Vitamin E is involved in immune function and, as shown primarily by in vitro studies of cells, cell signaling, regulation of gene expression, and other metabolic processes. Alpha-tocopherol inhibits the activity of protein kinase C, an enzyme involved in cell proliferation and differentiation in smooth muscle cells, platelets, and monocytes.
Protection against cancer. One recent Finnish study reported a reduced incidence of prostate cancer in male smokers who took 50 IU Vitamin E daily for five to eight years. Vitamin E might also block the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines formed in the stomach from nitrites in foods and protect against cancer by enhancing immune function . Some research links higher intakes of vitamin E with a decreased incidence of breast and prostate cancers 
Prevention of & delaying of cataracts and macular degeneration. Liquid vitamin E supplementation cuts the incidence of cataracts in half. The risk of late stage macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, is significantly lower in older adults who take high levels of Vitamin E .
Vitamin E helps prevent Alzheimer disease, particularly if combined with vitamin C, both taken in high doses (greater than 400 IUs a day for Vitamin E). Vitamin E boosts immune function. Some studies have shown improved immune responses in older people who take liquid vitamin E supplements .
Vitamin E could help prevent or delay coronary heart disease (CHD). In vitro studies have found that the nutrient inhibits oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, thought to be a crucial initiating step for atherosclerosis. Vitamin E might also help prevent the formation of blood clots that could lead to a heart attack or venous thromboembolism.
Vitamin E decreases the incidence of ischaemic heart disease (Gey et al. 1991).
Others: • Decreases the incidence of cataract (Packer, 1991; 1992).• Decreases the incidence of osteoarthritis (Blankenhorn, 1986). • Decreases the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (Kheir El-dein et al. 1992).
Natural VitAMIN E vs. Synthetic.
Vitamin E is available in many different forms. In its natural form,
vitamin E is designated
Our body only recognizes the d form. Although the l form has antioxidant activity, it may actually inhibit the d-form from entering cell membranes. Therefore, natural vitamin E (the d form) has greater benefit than the synthetic (dl). Research has shown that natural vitamin E is better retained and more biologically active than synthetic. Both forms of vitamin E are absorbed equally well through the gut, but the liver clearly prefers the natural form, transferring it to lipoproteins to be transported through the blood for deposition into the tissues.
Natural vitamin E supplements also contain several other tocopherols including the tocotrienols offering greater health benefit. For example, while the vitamin E activity of alpha-tocotrienol is rated at 30% compared to alpha-tocopherol’s 100%, alpha-tocotrienol actually showed greater anti-tumor activity. Natural vitamin E is retained in humans at least two times greater than the synthetic form of the supplement, according to a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1998), and is twice as effective.
Intake recommendations for vitamin E and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of The National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences).
The FNB’s vitamin E recommendations are for alpha-tocopherol alone, the only form maintained in plasma. Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin E (in mg) (1 mg of alpha-tocopherol is equivalent to 1.49 IU of the natural form or 2.22 IU of the synthetic form) are : Birth to 6 months - 4 mg; 7-12 months - 5 mg; 1-3 years - 6 mg; 4-8 years- 7 mg; 9-13 years - 11 mg; 14+ years - 15 mg; Pregnant women - 15 mg; Lactating women - 19 mg
Sources of Vitamin E
Food: Numerous foods provide vitamin E. Nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils are among the best sources of alpha-tocopherol, and significant amounts are available in green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals.
Table : Selected Food Sources of Vitamin E (a-Tocopherol)
Vitamin E Intakes : The diets of most Indians provide less than the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) levels of vitamin E.
Vitamin E Deficiency : Frank vitamin E deficiency is rare and overt deficiency symptoms have not been found in healthy people who obtain little vitamin E from their diets. Premature babies of very low birth weight (<1,500 gms) might be deficient in vitamin E.
Because the digestive tract requires fat to absorb vitamin E, people with fat-malabsorption disorders are more likely to become deficient in Vit E than people without such disorders.
Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin E
Research has not found any adverse effects from consuming vitamin E in food. However, high doses of alpha-tocopherol supplements can cause hemorrhage and interrupt blood coagulation in animals, and in vitro data suggest that high doses inhibit platelet aggregation. Doses of up to 1,000 mg/day (1,500 IU/day of the natural form or 1,100 IU/day of the synthetic form) in adults appear to be safe. . Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for Vitamin E : 1-3 years - 200 mg; 4-8 years - 300 mg; 9-13 years - 600 mg; 14-18 years - 800 mg; 19+ years - 1,000 mg.
Interactions with Medications
Vitamin E supplements have the potential to interact with several types of medications. People taking these and other medications on a regular basis should discuss their vitamin E intakes with their healthcare providers:
“Nutrient needs should be met primarily through consuming foods. Foods provide an array of nutrients and other compounds that may have beneficial effects on health. In certain cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful sources of one or more nutrients that otherwise might be consumed in less than recommended amounts. However, dietary supplements, while recommended in some cases, cannot replace a healthful diet.” (2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans).
A healthy diet is one that:
• Emphasizes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products.
• Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts.
• Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars.
• Stays within your daily calorie needs.
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6. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.
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